1. Distance between actor and microphone
The distance between the actor and the microphone can be divided into three types, mainly short distance, medium distance and long distance.
1) Close range pickup
The distance between the microphone and the mouth is 1 ~ 5cm, which is suitable for low-key hosts and singers of popular songs. Close range pickup is the most suitable voice pickup for bass tone hosts, whose voice is characterized by a strong sense of reality and intimacy. Because the sound source is very close to the microphone, it is an absolute direct sound, so the sound is pure and clear.
The requirements of speech equalization are as follows
The attenuation of 100Hz ~ 200Hz is 3 ~ 6dB because of proximity effect;
200 ~ 300Hz increases by 3 ~ 6dB, which is the basic range of language;
1 ~ 2KHz, increase 3 ~ 6dB, increase brightness, improve clarity;
More than 8kHz attenuation 3dB, reduce high-frequency noise, because the voice of high-frequency overtone is less than singing.
Do not use the effect device, so that the host's voice has a sense of reality, intimacy.
2) Medium range pickup
The distance between microphone and sound source is 5 ~ 10cm, which is suitable for national singing.
The distance between the host's microphone and the mouth shape is 5cm in the middle tone voice, and 5 ~ 10cm in the national singing style. The host's voice is characterized by relaxed, lively, cheerful and refreshing, which makes the atmosphere of the whole singing hall more active.
National songs require clear, bright and pure voice, enunciation and resonance, with national style and characteristics.
EQ should be processed as follows:
100Hz does not enhance, does not attenuate, and has no proximity effect;
256 ~ 440hz, increased by 3 ~ 6dB;
1 ~ 3kHz, increase 3dB, make the voice clear;
10kHz increases 3dB, increases the expressive power of timbre, and improves the resolution ability of timbre.
3) Remote pickup
The distance between microphone and sound source is 10 ~ 20cm.
Long distance pickup is suitable for bel canto. As the name suggests, bel canto emphasizes the beauty of timbre, and its pronunciation needs special training, so the number of overtones of timbre is large, the amplitude is strong, and the overtone structure of the whole timbre is relatively full. The electroacoustic system is required to have enough broadband, so that the low frequency overtone, medium frequency overtone and high frequency overtone can pass smoothly without being obstructed.
In order to make the sound system have good frequency transmission characteristics, the following processing should be done:
① LF increases by 3 ~ 6dB;
② 256 ~ 315hz, increased by 3 ~ 6dB;
1 ~ 2KHz, 3 ~ 6dB higher;
④ 10kHz increases by 3 ~ 6dB.
2. The angle of the microphone
(1) Close range pickup - popular singing, the distance between the microphone and the sound source should be 1 ~ 5cm, and the angle should be 15 ° to 30 ° to avoid the puff of low-frequency air mass.
(2) The distance between the microphone and the sound source is 5 ~ 20cm, and the angle is about 15 degrees.
(3) Long distance pickup - the distance between the microphone and the sound source is more than 10 ~ 20cm. Generally, multiple sound sources are picked up, such as a part or a group of violin sounds. The radiation angle axis of the microphone is aligned with the sound source, that is, the angle is 0 degrees.